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勞動剩余條件下的供給不足與工資上漲——基于家庭分工的視角
丁守海
《中國社會科學》2011年第5期
2011-10-26
中文摘要:
  基于家庭經濟學和時間配置理論可以證明,勞動剩余條件下的勞動供給并不是無限的。受制于家庭分工的約束,供給曲線呈特殊的階梯形態:隨著勞動供給的增加,農業勞動力的保留工資不斷提高,且幅度不斷擴大。勞動供給對工資的反應是非連續的:只有當工資上升到新的保留工資水平時,勞動供給才會增加;否則,工資上漲并不能帶來供給增長。與這種特殊的供給形態相對應,工資上漲的主要動力從農業收入轉向工業勞動需求。內蒙古、甘肅兩省1500個農戶的調查數據證明了這一判斷。當勞動需求擴張時,由于工資的微調不能帶動供給的微調,勞動力市場將長期難以出清。這提醒我們,當前農民工工資上漲與用工短缺并存現象很可能源于勞動剩余條件下的供給不足,并不必然意味著剩余勞動力枯竭,不能作為劉易斯拐點到來的證據。
英文摘要:
  On the basis of family economics and the theory of time allocation, it can be proved that labor supply under labor surplus conditions is not limitless. Subject to the constraint of intrahousehold labor division, the supply curve takes on a special staircase form: with the increase in labor supply, the reservation wage of rural labor rises constantly by an increasing margin. The response of labor supply to wage is not continuous: labor supply will increase only when the wage rises to the new level of reservation wage; otherwise wage increases will not lead to the increase in labor supply. Corresponding to this special supply condition, the demand for industrial labor instead of agricultural income becomes the major driving force for wage increases. Survey data on 1,500 rural households in Gansu and Inner Mongolia bear out the above proposition. When labor demand expands while the slight raise of wage cannot bring corresponding increase in labor supply, labormarket clearing will not be realized for a long period of time. This reminds us that the coexistence of wage increases and supply shortage of rural labor may very likely derive from insufficient labor supply under labor surplus conditions. It does not necessarily imply the exhaustion of labor surplus and cannot prove the arrival of the Lewisian turning point. 

 

 

 

安徽十一选五走势图基本走势图